#129 – Who Started The War?

In the South, despite claims of "freedom", the US administration shut down the KPR, the ‘Korean People’s Republic’, a popular political party lead by Yo Un-hyung, and closed down the most prominent Seoul newspaper that was sympathetic to the KPR. Meanwhile the free...

#128 – Kim Il Sung

Meanwhile in the North, the Soviets chose Kim Il Sung to be their hand-picked President. Unlike Rhee, who had spent most of the last 35 years of Japanese occupation chilling in Hawaii, Kim had spent his life fighting the Japanese occupation, first as a guerrilla, then...

#127 – Syngman Rhee

In the early hours of June 25, 1950, North Korean forces attacked across the 38th parallel that divided the country into a pro-Western regime in the south and a pro-Soviet regime in the north. It officially kicked off the first major conflict of the Cold War. The...

#126 – The Berlin Airlift

As part of their plan to re-build Germany, the USA secretly released a new currency, the Deutsche Mark, printed in New York, to replace the old Reichsmark. Frustrated at how the US, UK and France were re-building their zones of Germany without first reaching an...

#125 – The Berlin Blockade

The fault of the Berlin Blockade is often laid at the feet of Stalin. But the truth is a little more complicated. By 1948, the situation in Germany was still messy. The Four Powers (USA, USSR, UK, France) in control of Germany couldn't agree on a path forwards. Russia...

#124 – Freedom Under God

In 1951, the American Congregational minister James Fifield and his team of geniuses came up with a brilliant idea. To mark the 175th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, they proposed to hold a massive series of events devoted to the theme...

#123 – The Apostle to Millionaires

After Father Coughlin was shut down, another anti-Communist Christian leader rose in his place - James Fifield aka "The Apostle to Millionaires", aka "St. Paul of the Prosperous" aka "the Thirteenth Apostle of Big Business". Unlike Father Coughlin, Fifield was happy...

#122 – Father Charles Coughlin

Today we talk more about Christians who opposed the New Deal. In the 30s there was a guy called Father Charles Coughlin, a Canadian-American Roman Catholic priest based near Detroit. Commonly known as “the radio priest", he was one of the first political leaders to...

#121 – Truman’s Hysteria

In 1950 Harry Truman complained about a “great wave of hysteria” sweeping the nation - the Red Scare. He should know. He was really largely responsible for creating it. Between the launching of his "loyalty program" in March 1947 and it's finish in December 1952, some...

#120 – The Trials Of Harry Bridges

In his "New Deal", FDR brought back the ideals of the "Social Gospel", a 19th century Christian reform movement, to justify the creation of the modern welfare state. For a while, at least, some American Christian leaders were big fans of socialism. However, starting...

#119 – Red Scare Part 5

Manufacturers and the media also used the Dies Committee to silence their critics. Any attempt to criticise the behaviour of industrialists was called "socialism". Along with communist witch hunts, another tactic industrialists used to protect themselves against the...

#118 – Red Scare Part 4

The Red Scare continues. In 1939, Martin Dies Jr claimed that the Justice Department was investigating 2,850 known communists in government and that FDR had ordered a purge of all those named. But it was all a disinformation campaign launched by Hoover. The President...

#117 – Red Scare Part 3

As Red Fever grew in the United States in the 1930s, Herbert Hoover asked J. Edgar Hoover to help him blame the Bonus March of 1932 on the Communists.  In August 1936, FDR invited JEH to the White House to discuss “subversive activities”. Hoover told him the...

#116 – Red Scare Part 2

In April 1919, US authorities discovered a plot for mailing 36 bombs to prominent members of the U.S. political and economic establishment. One of those was Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. He decided it was the work of Russian Communists, so he ordered the...

#115 – Red Scare Part 1

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. HUAC is best...

#114 Operation Lea

Finally, on Oct 7, 1947, the French made their offensive into the Viet Bac region: Operation Léa - aka Princess Leia. So-called because it was a smart, feisty, brave diplomat and warrior of a plan. But because he had less troops than he wanted, Valluy scaled down his...

#113 Toxic Nuts

Ho wonders aloud to a journalist why the Vietnamese were not being given the same opportunity as the Philippines, who had just been given their independence from the US, or India, which had just won its independence from the UK. All the Americans seem to care about is...

#112 Keyser HO-ze

Ho and his team disappear into the jungle north of Hanoi. The French think they have won. George Marshall dithers. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the player below or subscribe through iTunes or any podcast player. If...

#111 – The War Begins

After the Haiphong incident, Ho started preparing Hanoi for an attack.  First, he made a public speech appealing to the French to withdraw their troops. They ignored him. “If those gooks want a fight, they’ll get it,” declared French General Valluy. Ho, Giap...

#110 – Domino Theory

Vietnam. 1947. The U.S. Consul in Saigon, Charles Reed, is the first American official to use the term "domino theory". He's talking about what will happen in Cambodia and Laos if Cochin China falls to the VietMinh, who he wrongly concludes are taking orders from...

#109 – The Haiphong Incident

Vietnam. Late 1946. The gears of war are turning. One President commits suicide. Another continues to fight for a peaceful settlement. A new government is formed. Then the French army in Indochina decides to take matters into its own hands. They seize a Chinese junk...

#108 – The First Indochina War (Part V)

Ho Chi Minh goes to Paris for the big sit down with the new French government. But right from the start, things do not go as planned. Meanwhile, the United States are doing their best to ignore the situation. And Ho finally gives in and admits publicly that this is...

#107 – The First Indochina War (Part IV)

Ho Chi Minh agrees to go to Paris for a second round of talks with the French about the independence of Vietnam. But just before he is due to leave, the French High Commissioner in Vietnam screws him over. And then, the next day, the French government collapses. Ho...

#106 – Andrew Roberts, Churchill

Andrew Roberts has a huge new biography out on England's favourite son, Winston Churchill, and he was nice enough to come on the show to answer a few of our questions about the man. You may remember Andrew talked to Cameron and David about his Napoleon biography a few...

#105 – The First Indochina War (Part III)

In Hanoi, a new provisional coalition government was established on January 1, 1946. Ho Chi Minh was to be named president and Nguyen Hai Than from the nationalist VNQDD party as vice president. The Vietminh and the Chinese controlled the north. The French controlled...

#104 – The First Indochina War (Part II)

Peter Dewey was the first of nearly 60,000 Americans to be killed in Vietnam. Truman sells out the Vietnamese to keep De Gaulle happy. And the French arrive back in their old colony. Here's a picture of the seahorse for reference. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a...

#103 – The First Indochina War (Part I)

After Ho Chi Minh declared the independence of Vietnam in September 1945, the British and Chinese troops arrived in Saigon and Hanoi to disarm the Japanese and prepare the return of the French - and the shooting begins. Some scholars thing that *this* was the...

#102 – Ho Chi Minh VI

* As they grew stronger, Giáp's forces took more territory and captured more towns * And then on 15 August they heard that the Japanese Emperor had declared his country's unconditional surrender to the allies. * Unfortunately for Ho and Giap, the U.S. had a new...

#101 – Ho Chi Minh V

* Ho believed the army’s job was largely going to be propaganda until the conditions were right for war. * But he also decided that for propaganda purposes, they had to win a military victory within a month of being established, so on 25 December 1944 Giáp led...

#100 – Ho Chi Minh IV

* Welcome to #100! * And we are still talking about 1944! * When we finished last time, Ho Chi Minh was making his way to the Red River Delta. * The Japanese have chased the French out of Vietnam and didn’t bother to protect the northern regions. * So Ho and the ICP...

#99 – Ho Chi Minh III

* On December 7 1941, Japan’s main carrier force, seeking to destroy the American fleet and thereby purchase time to complete its southward expansion, struck Pearl Harbour. * And the world celebrated. * As De Gaulle said “that’s it, the war’s over." * He was totally...

#98 – Ho Chi Minh II

* Ho’s speech to the French socialist congress in 1920 was 12 minutes long and delivered without notes. * It got some applause but that was about it. * He realised that French socialists were more worried about affairs at home than they were about colonialism in a...

#97 – Ho Chi Minh I

In 1919 a 29 year old Vietnamese man wrote a list of demands for political rights for his people to present to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference. Nobody paid him any attention. His name was Nguyen Ai Quoc. He devoted the rest of his life to...

#96 – Marshall Plan III

* America’s approach to providing financial aid wasn’t popular with some of their allies either. * Ernest Bevin, the British Foreign Secretary, resented American dollar diplomacy, in particular the linking of desperately needed financial assistance to London’s...

#95 – Marshall Plan II

* Something that Marshall mentions only briefly in his speech is the effect that would have on the US economy. (around the 7’20" mark) * Europe’s economy might have been destroyed after the war, but America’s wasn’t looking too bulletproof, partly BECAUSE the European...

#94 – Marshall Plan I

* One of the greatest pieces of mythology to ever be produced in America is the “Marshall Plan”. * It’s right up there with the idea of glorifying the “Founding Fathers”, who were actually just tax dodgers who orchestrated a bloody coup. * It’s also of course one of...

#93 – The X Article

* The X Article. * George Kennan, the Soviet expert who wrote the Long Telegram, wrote another piece, but this time published publicly and anonymously, in July 1947, just after Truman’s “Truman Doctrine” speech. * The actual title of the article was "The Sources of...

#92 – The Truman Doctrine

* And so on March 12, 1947, before a joint session of Congress, President Truman articulated, for the first time, a comprehensive American foreign policy for the postwar world. * He did not mention the Soviet Union by name, or refer to the need to contain its power in...

#91 – The Baruch Plan

* So here we are in 1946. * The Truman administration has decided on a “containment” policy. * But who is going to contain the containers? * According to the Novikov telegram, the Soviets felt like they had to contain the US. * And the U.S. felt like they had to...

#90 – The Novikov Telegram.

* The last, and certainly most conspicuous, of the four events that transformed the political culture of Washington in 1946 was a speech given in early March by Winston Churchill at Westminster College in Truman's home state of Missouri. * Like Stalin's speech of four...

#89 – The “Long Telegram”

* Stalin’s speech in February 1946 wasn’t a declaration of war. * It wasn’t anything that couldn’t have been said in the past. * He issued no direct threats toward the United States, and emphasized above all else the security of the Soviet state and the communist...

#88 – Mine All Mine

* In October 1945, Navy Day 1945 in New York City, at the Commissioning of the aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman gave a speech. * Here’s a clip. * https://youtu.be/BjUz4BPWwbc?t=2m21s * FAKE TRUMAN ACCENT: “We don’t seek any more land - because...

#87 – The Aftermath Part 2

* The military had long declared that radiation dissipated quickly in the atomic cities and posed little threat to the soldiers. * A 1980 Defense Nuclear Agency report concluded, “Medical science believes multiple myeloma has a borderline relationship with exposure to...

#86 – The Aftermath Part 1

* TRUMAN ANNOUNCES THE BOMB https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FN_UJJ9ObDs * On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb over the center of Hiroshima, killing at least 70,000 civilians instantly and perhaps 50,000 more in the days and months to follow. *...

#85 – The Decision Part 3

* Truman met often with Byrnes in the first few months of his Presidency. * But there are almost no records or notes of what they discussed. * And that was apparently Byrnes’ preference. * He was known as being paranoid about leaks. * a very devious politician *...

#84 – The Decision Part 2

* By June 18 events had progressed to the point where Admiral Leahy was able to note privately in his personal diary: * It is my opinion that at the present time a surrender of Japan can be arranged with terms that can be accepted by Japan and that will make fully...

#83 – The Decision Part 1

* On 15 August 1945, about a week after the bombing of Nagasaki, Truman tasked the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey to conduct a study on the effectiveness of the aerial attacks on Japan, both conventional and atomic. * Did they have an effect on the Japanese surrender?...

#82 – Alex Wellerstein

Our guest today is Alex Wellerstein, a self-described "historian of science, secrecy, and nuclear weapons". He's a Professor of Science and Technology Studies at the Stevens Institute of Technology. He blogs here and is on Twitter here. He is also the creator of the...

#81 – GROUND ZERO

Kistiakowsky and his team armed the device shortly after 5am and retreated to the control bunker. Their final task was to switch on a string of lights on the ground that would serve as an ‘aiming point’. The air force wanted to know what the effect of the blast would...

#80 – The Plug & The Hole

Back to Alamogordo. The army leased a ranch in the middle of the Jornada del Muerto site and converted it into a military police station and field laboratory. They thoroughly vacuumed it to make a makeshift clean room and sealed its windows with black electrical tape....

#79 – Jeffrey Hogue

Today we have a special guest - Jeff Hogue from the "History of the Cold War" podcast. We invited Jeff on to chat about his thoughts on the bombing of Japan. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the player below or subscribe...

#78 – Alamogordo

On 6 June, Stimson again briefed Truman on S-1. * The briefing summarized the consensus of the Interim Committee, set up as an advisory group on atomic research. * It’s job was the advise on the proper use of atomic weapons in wartime and to develop a position for the...

#77 – Bombing Japan

* Which brings us to April 1945. * Only weeks before Germany surrendered on May 7, FDR dies. * And Truman takes over as POTUS. * He knew nothing of the Manhattan Project or the atomic bomb. * He was briefed on it immediately by Sec of War Stimson. * By the time Truman...

#76 – Operation Alsos

Of course, while the bomb was being designed, they had to figure out how they were going to deliver it. And WHO was going to deliver it. Way back in March 1944, the US Army Air Force, with William Sterling "Deak” Parsons and his team at Los Alamos, developed two bomb...

#75 – The Beer Can Experiment

* President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to go full steam 26 days after Fermi’s success, on 28 December 1942 * The U.S. would end up spending $2 billion on it. (about $22 billion in 2018 dollars) * Do you know why it cost so much? * 130,000 people * When...

#74 – Benn Steil & The Marshall Plan

Benn Steil is an American economist, author of a great new book on "The Marshall Plan", and senior fellow and director of international economics at the Council on Foreign Relations. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the...

#73 – k

* Fission involved breaking apart the nuclei of heavy elements like uranium or plutonium. * Fusion involves forcing the nuclei of lighter elements, like hydrogen or deuterium, together. * And deuterium, which is basically heavy hydrogen, is far easier to get your...

#72 – The Manhattan Project

* President Roosevelt responded to Einstein’s letter by setting up the Advisory Committee on Uranium under Lyman J. Briggs, director of the National Bureau of Standards. * Side note: his daughter Isabel would eventually marry Clarence Myers and go on to generate the...

#71 – The World Set Free

* In 1913, H. G. Wells wrote a book called The World Set Free * The novel begins: "The history of mankind is the history of the attainment of external power. Man is the tool-using, fire-making animal. . . . Always down a lengthening record, save for a set-back ever...

#70 – No Military Justification

* The Potsdam declaration on Japan was tricky. * It was drafted while Churchill was still PM. * In fact it was probably one of the last things he did as PM. * But it was signed by Attlee. * Stalin had to be involved, but he couldn’t sign it because the U.S.S.R. was...

#69 – The Atomic Bomb

* Episode 69. * Ray’s favourite number. * Have you actually had one yet, Ray? * Sister in law? * Truman had given his final approval to the plan to invade Kyushu, the southern most island of Japan, just two weeks before leaving for Potsdam. * A Russian invasion of...

#68 – Two And A Half Men

Well the election result shocked everyone.  And the rest of the contingent at Potsdam weren’t very happy about it either.  We might think that the Soviets would be please to be dealing with a British government made up of socialists.  But that wasn’t the case.  Stalin...

#67 Clement Atlee

Attlee was Churchill’s lame duck deputy PM.  In fact he was the first Deputy PM the UK ever had.  I didn’t realise this, but in the UK the role of the Deputy PM isn’t like you’d expect, like it is in Australia or like the Vice-President in the USA.  The Deputy PM...

#66 – Potsdam Begins

Stalin arrived in Potsdam a day late. Claimed he had a small heart attack. Might have been a ruse. It gave the others a day to take a tour of Berlin on July 16 and see the destruction first hand. During the first week of the conference, everyone was jubilant, having...

#65 – Michael Neiberg

Prof Michael Neiberg is Chair of War Studies and Professor of History, Department of National Security and Strategy, US Army War College. He has also written a number of excellent books on the First World War  - as well as the book we are talking about today -...

#64 – Towards Potsdam

After a string of fuckups, Truman starts listening to other people, like Joseph Davies, the US Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1937-38, one of the guys he had ignored before his first meeting with Molotov. They decide a new meeting of the Big Three is needed - and...

#63 – The Old One-Two

Truman listens to certain people who tell him he should get tough with the Russians. At his first meeting with Molotov, the Soviet Foreign Minister said “I have never been talked to like that in my life." “Carry out your agreements and you won’t get talked to like...

#62 – Truman

Harry S. Truman. Farmer. Soldier. Failed businessman. Given his political career by a mobbed-up bootlegger. Became President through fate. Adopted John Wayne persona to try to look tough. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in...

#61 – FDR Dead

Then, on April 12, 1945, FDR died, aged only 63. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the player below or subscribe through iTunes or any podcast player. If you haven't heard any of the series and want to know if you'll like...

#60 – In Like Flynn

FDR sends one of his inner circle, Edward Flynn, a staunch Catholic, to meet the Pope to try to keep the peace between him and Stalin. Stalin meanwhile revived caesaropapism, the old tradition dating back to Constantine, making himself head of the Russian Orthodox...

#59 – Stalin Versus The Pope

Stalin crushes the Ukrainian Catholic Church, partly because socialists believe religion is the opium of the masses, and partly because the Pope, Pius XII, had done a deal with Hitler and was a virulent anti-Communist. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you...

#58 – Operation Sunrise

March 8, 1945. Allen Dulles, the Bern station chief of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (a forerunner of the CIA), met in secret with Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff, the former head of Heinrich Himmler’s secretariat, who in the last years of the war became the...

#57 – Alger Hiss

On February 13, 1945, U.S. Secretary of State Stettinius and his staff were invited to a reception hosted by Vyshinsky in the commissariat’s guesthouse in Moscow. Little did the Americans know that one member of their staff was a Soviet spy. HOW TO LISTEN If you're...

#56 – Dracula

What does Dracula have to do with the Cold War? The next issue to drive a wedge between the Big Three was the government of Romania. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the player below or subscribe through iTunes or any...

#55 – Cold As Ice

Our first post-Yalta episode! Churchill and Roosevelt go home and give big speeches about how well Yalta went and how the Big Three really get each other. And then it all fell apart. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the...

#54 – Nyet

The last day of Yalta! We're out, baby! Churchill fell asleep in the middle of an important debate and then woke up ranting about the wrong things. Iran wants everyone to leave their oil alone but no-one cares. Stalin wanted access to the Black Sea Straits. And Frank...

#53 – Declaration of Liberated Europe

Just when I thought I was out... they pulled me back in! To Yalta! Before the Big Three left Yalta, they signed a document that promised to allow the people of Europe "to create democratic institutions of their own choice". Of course, at the time, the British were...

#52 – German Reparations Part II

As the Yalta conference comes to a close, the question of German reparations is settled on, but it’s obvious that Stalin still doesn’t trust the other two. And the feeling is mutual. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the...

#51 – German Reparations

Stalin goes hard on the issue of German reparations but meets with pushback from Churchill, while Roosevelt can't seem to make up his mind. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the player below or subscribe through iTunes or...

#50 – Summary Execution

So after they agreed on Poland, the rest of the February 9 plenary session is spent talking about Germany.  Specifically - what to do with the Nazi big dogs.  Previously secret British War Cabinet papers released on 1 January 2006 have shown that Churchill had been...

#49 – Prof. Serhii Plokhii, Harvard

We have a very special guest. Professor Serhii Plokhii is the Mykhailo Hrushevsky professor of Ukrainian history at Harvard University, where he also serves as the director of the Ukrainian Research Institute. He’s the author of quite a few award-winning books...

#48 – Settling The Polish Question

Day 9 at Yalta! The official, famous photographs are taken, and someone worries that he's going to be sent to the Gulag as a result. And the Polish question is finally settled to everyone's relief. They can almost go home. Oh and there was no raping. HOW TO LISTEN If...

#47 – The Rapist

Someone else was at the dinner on February 8, Day 4, at Koreiz villa - Lavrentii Beria the head of the dreaded People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs - a known womanizer and rapist. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in...

#46 – The Big Threesome

At the end of a long day full of hard bargaining, The Big Three could still relax in one another’s company. In this episode we discuss the most important dinner of the conference. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to the full show in the...

#45 – Stalin Agrees On Japan

A deal was struck between FDR and Stalin: the Soviets will join the war with Japan in exchange for territorial acquisitions at Japan’s expense and the creation of a Soviet sphere of influence in northeastern China. HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can...

#44 – The Bombing Of Dresden

The city of Dresden was the primary victim of the “zone of limitation” agreement reached at Yalta—one of the few direct outcomes of the military consultations held there. In early 1945 Dresden was one of the few major German centers to have escaped systematic Allied...

#43 – The Battle of Balaclava

On Feb 7, the British Chiefs of Staff decided to take the day off to visit the site of the Battle of Balaclava, infamous for the "Charge of the Light Brigade" in 1854. Meanwhile, the Americans and the Soviet military commanders took the opportunity to talk about...

#42 – Poland’s Borders

Conversation at Yalta turns to Poland's borders. Stalin had a new proposal that would mean moving the southern part of the Polish-German border 200 kilometers west - into Germany, right up to the Oder & Neisse rivers. Which was actually giving Poland more of...

#41 – Frank Makes Shit Up

On Feb 8, when Stalin arrived for his lunch date with Roosevelt, FDR told him that the Foreign Ministers had met that morning and agreed to accept the two extra countries for the Soviet’s in the UN General Assembly. It was good timing for FDR, because that day they...

#40 – Stalin Plays With Pooh

At Yalta, Feb 7 and 8 - days 4 and 5 - are going to be about trying to get agreement on the Polish issues and the issue of the Soviets entering the war with Japan. Winnie The Pooh is getting played by Uncle Joe, who senses that the US/UK love fest is struggling.  

#39 – Stalin Drops The Mic

Back to the question of Poland. Roosevelt suggests changing the Polish-Russian border - in the favour of the Poles. Why? It'd really help him out in the upcoming U.S. election. Churchill agreed with him. Why? It would really help him out in the upcoming British...

#38 – Warm Water Ports

Despite their attempts to get the U.K. and U.S.S.R. to give up on the concept of spheres of influence, the Monroe Doctrine remained the dominant way that America built its economic empire after WWII. Russia has always longed for more warm water ports and we explain...

#37 – Poland

We are back talking about Poland and why it was such an important issue to the Big Three at Yalta. As Churchill himself said, Poland was so important, it was discussed at seven out of the eight plenary sessions and the official British record contained 18,000 words on...

#36 – That Little Rat Leo Pasvolsky

So after Sumner Welles resigned, the majority of the work on the UN charter was done by an interesting guy no-one remembers - Leo Pasvolsky. When he died in 1953, his New York Times obituary was subtitled "Wrote Charter of World...

#35 – The United Nations

During the rest of Day Two of Yalta they discuss how much Germany should pay in reparations and how many Germans should go to Russia as slave labour. On Day Three, the talk turns to FDR's passion project - The United Nations. We go into some detail about the early...

#34 – Charles de Gaulle

As the Yalta conference now turns to whether or not France should have a role in the occupation of Germany, the Allied Control Commission and the UN Security Council, we thought it was a good time to do a quick bio on France's post-WWII leader, Charles de Gaulle, aka...

#33 – Dismemberment

We're finally back! Sorry about the long wait. On day two of the Yalta Conference Franky wanted to discuss the role of France in the German occupation. Joey hijacked the agenda to demand agreement on dismemberment. And Winny just sucked his thumb because no-one cared...

#32 – Fidel Castro Part 4

Part four (!!!) of our "quick" biography on Fidel Castro, using the New York Times' obituary, breaking it down, line by line, to uncover the propaganda. And we're making these Castro episodes free to guests.This is absolutely the last part, we promise! HOW TO LISTEN...

#31 – Fidel Castro Part 3

Part three (!!!) of our "quick" biography on Fidel Castro, using the New York Times' obituary, breaking it down, line by line, to uncover the propaganda. And we're making these Castro episodes free to guests. And yes - there is a part four! But it's the last part, we...

#30 – Fidel Castro Part 2

Part two of our "quick" biography on Fidel Castro, using the New York Times' obituary, breaking it down, line by line, to uncover the propaganda. And we're making these Castro episodes free to guests.   HOW TO LISTEN If you're already a subscriber, you can listen to...